Category Archives: Anthro136kSp11

(8) Five Wounds Church: Interpretive Project Profiles-Digital Exploration

Outlined here are three proposals to engage the community over the years. They can be implemented at any time given the necessary resources. The reason for their inclusion has been to supplement the historical, appraisal, and implementation approaches to the revitalization of the Portuguese culture. The following is are suggestions actively invite and retain visitors once the cultural aspect of the church and little Portugal has been established.

Digital Exploration:

Digital exploration immediately addresses the Portuguese youth and removed visitor audience begins by creating an interactive website. Digital tourism allows visitors-real and virtual- from around the world to visit Five Wounds Church, which will Increase the number of visitors. Currently, the church does not explain the history of the church and the meanings of all tangible items inside the church. The creation of website will allow visitors to create their own experience while maintaining the goals of Five wounds Church. In order to keep the visitors interested, the website will “not force-feed them a programmatic view of heritage. Rather we should create a design structure that is influenced by the goals of mulit-vocality and reflexivity” (Gonzalez 2005) as it is stated “Multivocality and the Virtual Interpretive Environment” by Sara L. Gonzales. The website will be created by using the free software WordPress. The ability for the visitor to explore the site in 3D will be created by a Google 3D program. visitors can click on an object that will produce the description and history.

For Example, if a visitor clicks on this object a description of the object will appear.


This stain glass window will explain the history of Portuguese to America that is portrayed

(9) Five Wounds Church:Interpretive Project Proflies-Mobile Detection

Mobile Detection:

Visitors who participate in a scavenger hunt become more observant resulting in a more meaningful experience. According to Erik Champion, navigation influences visitors in what to do, whereas exploration allows visitors to lead themselves where they want. In result, participants will experience their own interpretation of the environment that creates a whole new perspective.  A scavenger hunt attracts visitors of all ages and especially children and adolescents. A scavenger hunt is an active way to get visitors involved with the church. Families can participate in a scavenger hunt and work together to figure out answers to clues and riddles regarding the historical and cultural heritage of the church.  Children and adolescents are the main targeted audience along with parental supervision. With guidance and prior knowledge, family members can learn from each other and the scavengers hunt itself. The idea of answering the clues and riddles is to think about the many possible answers that can be used.  There are many different ways to approach a scavenger hunt, but it takes some thought and energy.  In consideration of the variability of age, there will be three levels of difficulty.They are easy, moderate, and hard. To make sure that there is no repetition of answers, fresh new clues and riddles will be provided each time.

The scavenger hunt can consist of finding an image such as this one.

(10) Five Wounds Church: Interpretive Project Profiles-Ascertaining Authenticity

Interior of Five Wounds: Examine the Architectural style

Ascertaining Authenticity:

This ongoing project will address such questions of authenticity within the intangible and tangible portions of church structures. for example, making architectural descriptions available to audience members over the correct analysis of Five Wounds becomes foundational to any claims of “authentic” (or in this case, unauthentic) style. This project will be executed by reprimanding the official church website to correctly identify the buildings “authentic” style. How? By building paragraphs embodying a certain portion of Manuelian architecture, such as armillary spheres found on ships (a navigational instrument and the personal emblem of Manuel I), and then providing two pictures for the reader to choose from; one picture will perfectly embody the Manuelian style, and the other will not. We hope that this will begin to help audience members establish what the core representation styles of Manuelian architecture are in order for them to create critiques not only on the church of the Five Wounds, but what will ultimately serve them in any travels as they mention to their mate “Aha! I have seen such a structure before – this style is Manuelian!”

Exterior Picture: Examine the Architectural Style

(11) Five Wounds Church: Research Staff

Research Team Enjoying Portuguese Food in Little Portugal

Andres E. Tobar

Native to the City across the bay, he resurrected the Anthropology Club at City College of San Francisco after nearly a decade of being ignored. The Club has drawn notable attention form CCSF faculty/students and is now in its third strong year even in Andres’ absence since he transferred to UCB in 2010. Registered as a dual-major in Rhetoric and Anthropology with an emphasis on Cultural and Social Theory, Andres has recently been nominated to co-facilitate the University’s Association for Undergraduate Anthropologists and somehow also found time initiate the AUA’s Journal with Editors in Chief Judith Grey and Ryan Whitacre on top of taking four upper division courses. Future academic endeavors include some form of graduate level training to be decided on in the following year as he finishes his time at Berkeley as a Senior. However, academia plays second fiddle, remarks Andres, to his love for his Family and loyalty to the Bay Area.

Leonard Martinez

Native of La Puente, CA.  To the surprise of many, he transferred to UC Berkeley in the fall semester in 2009. His experience at UC Berkeley and his involvement with student organizations has been life changing. During the 2010-2011 academic year, Leonard served as Financial Director for Reflejos de Mexico De UC Berkeley and was recently promoted to President for the Fall semester in 2011. In addition, he was also the Chicano Studies representative for Ethnic Studies 5th Account, and the Chicano Studies student advisor to the department chair of Chicano Studies.  In the fall semester of 2011, Leonard will be graduating with a double major in Chicano and Ethnic Studies and a minor in Anthropology. As an advocate for equal justice and immigration Leonard hopes for one day pursue a career in immigration law.

Joshua Sales

Is a native of Richmond, CA. Joshua will be graduating in the fall semester in 2011 from UC Berkeley with a major in Anthropology.  Joshua considers himself a huge gamer and Golden State Warrior fan. In the future, he hopes to pursue a career in business administration and marketing.


Five Wounds Church Proposal

Green Gulch Zen Center: Cultural Heritage Significance

The Green Gulch Zen Center encompasses a vast array of tangible and intangible sources of heritage. For example, the Zen Center practices organic farming of vegetables and fruits, which is a tangible source in the physicality of the farming equipment and raised beds. It also displays an example of intangible in the community building and environmental appreciation produced from the gardening process. Also, the educational learning of gardening and agriculture falls into intangible. The meditation practice also functions as intangible and tangible. The meditation rooms with blankets to kneel on and traditional clothing are tangible. The spirituality and teacher-student relationships are intangible. In addition, the tea served in the teahouse as well as the traditional teapots, cups are tangible. The ritualistic aspects of the tea ceremony are intangible. The books sold in the bookstore are tangible, while the group discussions after lectures are intangible because they create development of community knowledge. The cookbooks and written recipes are tangible. Yet, the activity of cooking and experiencing food together is intangible and creates food education and experience.

Green Gulch follows the management blueprint designed by the original founders of San Francisco Zen Center. Both practicing monks and visiting resident students communally live in the space. Two cultures merge in the site: Western culture based on local agriculture and Japanese culture focusing on spirituality and aesthetics. The intangible heritage has become very important to preserve as originally developed by Suzuki Roshi, founder of San Francisco Zen Center.

Green Gulch produces spirituality by the use of its landscape and tradition.  Green Gulch is not only a spiritual site for Buddhists but also open in many ways to public usage.   Aesthetic values such as the atmosphere of solitude created by the Zen Center fosters spiritual values or just gives individuals a quiet place to think.  Some visitors come solely seeking a place where they can seek generic spirituality.  Green Gulch provides residents and visitors a place to meditate, alone or part of the community.  Green Gulch also provides a rural and costal environment for individuals that enjoy the outdoors.  Hikers and cyclists frequently take advantage of the land set aside by the Zen Center and the Nature Conservancy.

Alcatraz – Implementation

Native American history is a theme that runs through all of these projects. The overarching goal for this project is to increase awareness of and educate people about the Native American history of Alcatraz Island.  Funding for the projects is expected to come from the federal government, donations, and the  $26 fee to visit Alcatraz Island. The success of the projects would depend on cooperation between researchers, the NPS, and the Native American community, in order to gain more information and implement the activities.

Project # 1: Increased Tangible Heritage on Alcatraz Island
Specific objectives for this project include drawing attention to the Native American heritage on Alcatraz Island and preserving remaining tangible heritage, particularly graffiti. This project would entail setting up plaques around the island to help users find the graffiti and help viewers decipher what they say, installing memorials, preserving the remaining graffiti and developing an interpretive trail as an audio tour.

Project # 2: Storytelling
The particular goals for this project are to honor and revitalize Native traditions of storytelling, to provide employment for Bay Area Native Americans, and to teach visitors about Native American values, such as community and respect for elders. During the activity the visitors would gather around the campfire. Traditional foods like fry bread and coffee would be served. The stories would concentrate on the Native American presence on the island, as well as some traditional Native American tales. The content and delivery would largely be at the discretion of the storyteller.

Project # 3: Re-enactment of the Landing: “This Land is My Land”

This activity would start on the ferry ride to Alcatraz, during which Native American actors would explain briefly the history of the occupation. On the island, the visitors would then be escorted to the Warden’s House, which was the Native American headquarters during the occupation. Here the audience would experience a celebratory powwow, and afterwards hear the story about life on Alcatraz during the occupation and the speech by Richard Oakes. Visitors would also experience aspects of Native American culture such as jewelry-making. Finally, actors dressed as US marshals would escort visitors back to the ferry.


Project # 4: Picture Scavenger Hunt
Some specific goals for this project include encouraging research on Native American history, increasing visitor participation and expanding the representation of the island’s Native American history online. The participants would listen to an informative talk about Native American history. They would then be lent cameras and given brochures outlining the subjects of the history, and instructed to go around the island and take pictures of each subject, which would finally be compiled on a web site.

Project # 5: A Play of Multiple Voices
This project aims to establish ties among the communities involved with Alcatraz Island and its history. For this activity, an online survey would be created, collecting the input from all the key players of Alcatraz Island. Some additional interviews could also be conducted. On the basis of the collected information the play would be written and performed.

To read more about these Project Profiles, please go to the main page (Alcatraz – Native American Presence and Occupation) in order to download the full Site Management Plan.

Alcatraz – Key Players

People on Site and Scientific Interest Groups

Currently no permanent populations live on the island. Most of the people present on the island are visitors, NPS park rangers, volunteers for the Alcatraz Garden project and contractors who work on renovation. No archaeological research is currently being done on Alcatraz, as most of the research has been taken off site.


Some of the key players are the organizations involved with Alcatraz, such as the PRBO and the U.S. Geological Survey, who are currently conducting a Landscape Survey. Outside of the NPS, there are groups that try to help keep our national parks accessible, such as The National Parks Conservation Association (NPCA), who are a nonpartisan group working to minimize threats to national parks.

International Community

Some other key players include visitors from different countries and regions, as well as recreationists like marathoners and hikers. The US National Park Service is working on developing sister park relationships with national parks all over the world. Other key players include school groups: part of the NPS budget is reserved for education.

Native Americans


Richard Oakes

Native Americans are also important key players for Alcatraz. This group includes the local Miwok and Ohlone Indians, those Indians who occupied Alcatraz from 1969 to 1971, and many other Native Americans for whom this island is a symbol of the Native American movement.

Local Business

Local business key players include all hotels, shops, restaurants, and tour companies that have ties to Alcatraz Island.


Another group of key players includes the descendants of prisoners and the Federal Penitentiary employees at Alcatraz Island.

The following is a list of sponsors:

•        Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy (The Gardens of Alcatraz)

•        Federal Bureau of Prisons (Inmates perform maintenance work)

•        The Friends of Civil War Alcatraz (docents of Civil War history)

•        American Reinvestment and Recovery Act (solar panels to be installed on the island)

•        Save American’s Treasures (Garden restoration)

•        Alcatraz Cruises

The following is a list of academic partners:

•        Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy Native Plant Nurseries

•        American Youth Hostels

•        Bay Area Discovery Museum

•        Headlands Institute

•        YMCA Point Bonita Outdoor & Conference Center San Francisco

•        Exploratorium

To learn more, please go to the main page (Alcatraz – Native American Presence and Occupation) in order to download the full Site Management Plan.

By Tatyana Kovaleva

Alcatraz – Modern Context

Ownership and Legal Status

Alcatraz Island is managed by the National Park Service, one of eight bureaus run by the Department of the Interior, a Cabinet-level agency of the US Government. It is a part of the NPS Golden Gate National Recreation Area (GOGA). As a national park, Alcatraz is under the jurisdiction of Parks, Forest, and Public Property Code of Federal Regulations.

Buildings and Visitor Facilities


The island as a NPS and GGNRA park.

There are numerous buildings on the island, including the Guardhouse, the Cellhouse, the Officer’s Club, the Warden’s House, the Lighthouse, the Warehouse, the Power Plant, the Electrical Repair Shop, the Modern Industries Building, the New Industries Building, the Morgue, and the Recreation Yard. There are also gardens, including the Officer’s Row Gardens alongside the Cellhouse. Alcatraz includes a Parade Ground area and numerous trails and pathways that are accessible to visitors such as the Agave Trail.

Condition of the Site


An example of the ruins at Alcatraz.

The condition of buildings on Alcatraz varies. Some buildings, such as the Cellhouse and the Guardhouse, are renovated and accessible to the public. Other buildings, like the New Industries Building, are renovated externally, but are closed to  visitors. Some structures, like the Warden’s House, have nothing but outside walls remaining.


Many measures have been taken to preserve the man-made structures of Alcatraz and the natural features of the island. Organizations like PRBO, the US Geological Survey, Lutsko Associates, the Olmsted Center, and the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy strive to preserve and properly manage the bird populations and the gardens of Alcatraz.

Current Points of Interpretation

The primary perspective of interpretation of Alcatraz is that of a federal penitentiary, because most of the surviving structures pertain to that period, which is also the most documented. Other aspects of history, such as the Native American presence or the military fort, are under-represented.

Tourist and Visitor Profiles


Alcatraz Cruises is the only commercial company that is allowed to dock on Alcatraz Island.

The Alcatraz experience is targeted at the general public, rather than specific groups. However, there are certain accommodations for groups with special needs, such as people with limited mobility.  The Alcatraz management offers the Cellhouse guided audio tour in English, Spanish, German, French, Italian, Japanese, Dutch, Mandarin, Portuguese and Korean languages. Alcatraz Island does not have age-specific programs.

By Tatyana Kovaleva

Alcatraz – The Island and its Environment


The environmental aspects of Alcatraz Island can be divided into three categories: birds, rock formations, and plant life. Each of these categories has a unique value and varying stakeholders.

The Birds

Canada Geese

Canada Geese

In 2007 there were 1078 pairs of birds on the island, including western gulls, pelagic cormorants, pigeon guillemots, a pair of black oystercatchers, snowy egrets and black crowned night herons. These birds have migrated to Alcatraz because of a decrease of crayfish on the Farallon Islands, and to escape the pollution of the SF Bay Area.  The bird population of Alcatraz has an intrinsic value.

Snowy Egret

Snowy Egret

One of the issues with the birds is that they can be disturbed by tourists on the island and kayakers, causing them to abandon their nests along with their chicks.  Their presence on Alcatraz thus limits the use and development of Alcatraz as a tourist attraction. Some sites are closed off to prevent disturbance to the nests. To meet these challenges the Golden Gate Park Conservancy has been working on and implementing strategy outlines in The Bird Conservation and Management Strategy for Historic Alcatraz Island. They are working with organizations such as PRBO Conservation Science and the US Geological Survey, who help monitor the birds.

The Geological Formation – the “Rock”

As with the bird population, the “Rock” itself has intrinsic value.  Alcatraz has socio-cultural values, which include historical, cultural/symbolic and aesthetic values. The people who lived on the island, such as the Native Americans, army officers, prison inmates and prison wardens, had a connection with the island itself, and experienced its isolation.

Some of the most pressing problems with the “Rock” are the natural erosion of formations, damage caused by construction, and demolition of the debris remaining from conservation projects. The park staff are repairing water and electric systems, removing dangerous materials, stabilizing buildings and bringing them up to modern safety standards. Also, the park managers made the decision to sell the debris from reconstruction as souvenirs in the gift shop. This allows the debris to be cleaned up, and opens up another revenue stream for the park.

The Gardens


Officer Row Gardens

Another aspect of the environment is the plant life of Alcatraz. Besides having an intrinsic value, the plant life of Alcatraz also has socio-cultural values, such as historical, cultural/symbolic and aesthetic values. The gardens were cultivated by the various inhabitants of the island during each era. First, the gardens were planted and tended by the soldiers, then by prison inmates and officers’ families.

The biggest challenge for the gardens is the maintenance of the plants. Lutsko Associates, the Olmsted Center, the Golden Gate National Parks Conservancy, and the Garden Conservancy have combined their efforts to create a survey of the surviving plants and a plan for landscape maintenance and stabilization. These organizations created the Alcatraz Garden Project, which attracts volunteers to help maintain the gardens. In 2009, 613 volunteers put in 7,000 hours of service. During 2005-2007 plans for Main Road and Officer Row Gardens were implemented. The volunteers have also devised a rainwater irrigation system.

By Tatyana Kovaleva

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City Lights Bookstore: Other Beat Cities

While San Francisco is often attributed as the main gathering place of the Beat movement, the movement was also international and the cities listed below played important parts as well.

New York

  • Many of the Beats attended Columbia University where they met through classes and mutual friends
  • Began to get together regularly to discuss different topics, poetry, and explore the city
  • Influenced by the jazz scene,  coffee shops, and art scene.  The jazz scene in particular influenced Kerouac’s poetry as he tried to mimic the jazz rhythm in his writing


  • The Beats were attracted to the Latin Quarter and cheap rates at Madame Rachou’s hotel (cheap because it lacked proper accommodations such as a kitchen, access to showers)
  • The city provided a free environment for the Beats to experiment in many ways through poetry, sexuality, and community

Mexico City

  • Accessible through the Pan American Highway, promotion of tourism by the Mexican government, peso devaluation
  • Beats inspired to visit after friends’ experiences and books written about the country
  • Attracted to the easy lifestyle the city provided but later became disenchanted after certain events
  • Jack Kerouac visited and lived in the city multiple times,  and wrote many works, including Mexico City Blues
  • William Burroughs lived in the city with his wife and children, hosted friends, and wrote other works.  Also ended up accidentally killing his wife in drunken game of “William Tell”
  • Other Beats attended school and took courses in indigenous languages and anthropology